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Rectal Cancer Treatment by Stage

Rectal Cancer Treatment: Stage II

Treatment of stage II rectal cancer may include the following:
 
  • Resection, with or without anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the rectum and colon, or the colon and anus), followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Partial or total pelvic exenteration (surgery to remove the organs and nearby structures of the pelvis), depending on where the cancer has spread. This surgery is followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, followed by surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy during surgery, followed by external-beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
     

Rectal Cancer Treatment: Stage III

Treatment of stage III rectal cancer may include the following:
 
  • Resection (with or without anastomosis) followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Partial or total pelvic exenteration (surgery to remove the organs and nearby structures of the pelvis), depending on where the cancer has spread. Surgery is followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, followed by surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy during surgery, followed by external-beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy to relieve symptoms caused by advanced cancer.
     

Rectal Cancer Treatment: Stage IV

Treatment of stage IV rectal cancer may include the following:
 
  • Resection/anastomosis (surgery to remove the cancer and join the cut ends of the rectum and colon, or colon and anus) to relieve symptoms caused by advanced cancer
  • Surgery to remove parts of other organs, such as the liver, lung, and ovaries, where the cancer may have spread
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy to relieve symptoms caused by advanced cancer
  • Chemotherapy following surgery.
     
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Treatment for Rectal Cancer

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